Project Running
Project implemented

 

                                                                 

By the end of the project the communities and local government of the upazila will be fully informed and empowered to act in arsenic mitigation, with support from DPHE.

The specific objectives of the proposed monitoring will be as follows:

Situation of existing tubewells:

A total of 21,277 tubewells in 370 villages of 11 unions including Pourashava of Manikganj Sadar Upazila has been surveyed. Out of which 19,928tubewells were found running (Table–1).

Table - Union wise Status of Tube wells

Sl. No.

Union
Running
Choked-up
Out of Order
Pump Stolen
Public
Private
Public
Private
Public
Private
Public
Private
1
Nabagram
117
826
14
59
11
74
1
2
2
Garpara
155
1845
6
22
6
83
1
2
3
Atigram
246
1194
2
7
17
46
5
2
4
Bethila Mitera
152
1875
4
18
24
85
1
5
5
Hatipara
129
1647
11
16
28
72
8
14
6
Krishnapur
191
2481
15
56
7
51
2
4
7
Jaigir
256
1825
10
45
12
53
1
3
8
Bhararia
249
1759
11
21
18
48
4
4
9
Pourashava
302
1885
45
71
10
53
4
1
10
Dighi
101
1377
3
8
5
24
0
1
11
Putail
170
1146
2
12
10
24
3
4
Total:
2068
17860
123
335
148
613
30
42

Of all 21,277 tubewells surveyed 18,838 i.e. 88.85% tubewells are privately owned and 11.15% i.e., 2,439 nos. and public tubewells. Of that 19,982 i.e., 93.91% were found running the rest 461 i.e., 2.13% were choked-up, 762 (3.58%) is out of order on the date of survey and the rest 72 tubewells' pump were stolen. Of the total 2,439 Public TWs 87% found running compare to last year 90% running. Percentage of out of order TWs increases from 5% to 6%. Similarly percentage of choked-up TWs increases from 4% to 5.17% from last year.

Table – Union-wise Arsenic Prevalence in Tubewell Water
Sl.
No.
Name of Union

Total No. of TWs

No. of Tubewells
Tested
Green (00–0.05 mg./L)

Red (.051–1 mg./L)

1 Vararia
1510
1492
559(37%)
933(63%)

2

Hatipara

2047

1907

1160 (61%)

747 (39%)

3

Atigram

1470

1393

879 (63%)

514 (37%)

4

Nabagram

1677

1515

1005 (66%)

510 (34%)

5

Putail

1526

1458

1034 (71%)

424 (29%)

6

Dighi

1732

1649

1169 (71%)

480 (29%)

7

Municipality

3764

3502

2516 (72%)

986 (28%)

8

Krishnapur

2357

2298

1700 (74%)

598 (26%)

9

Garpara

2040

1981

1565 (79%)

416 (21%)

10

Bethila Mitera

2044

1898

1580 (83%)

318 (17%)

11

Jagir

2286

2207

1895 (86%)

312 (14%)

Total:

22453

21300 (100%)

15062 (70.72%)

6238 (29.28%)

From the above Table – 1 it is observed that prevalence of Arsenic contamination is the highest in Vararia Union (63%) and the lowest in Jagir Union (14%). However, prevalence of arsenic contamination in the whole Upazila is 29.28% (average).

21,931 (97.69%) tubewells surveyed were shallow (depth less than 250'), 462 (2.03%) TARA pump, 32 (0.15%) DTW (depth above 250') and 28 (0.13%) others.

Table – Comparison of Arsenic prevalence with last year survey result

SL No
Name of Union
% of TWs Green Year
% of TWs Red Year
2000
2001
2000
2001
1 Nabagram
66
69.92
34
30.08

2

Garpara

79

78.78

21

21.22

3

Atigram

63

69.36

37

30.74

4

Bethila Mitera

83

87.49

17

12.51

5

Hatipara

61

50.17

39

49.83

6

Krishnapur

74

72.92

26

27.08

7

Jaigir

86

89.09

14

10.91

8

Bhararia

37

46.57

63

53.43

9

Pourashava

72

82.04

28

17.96

10

Dighi

71

65.22

29

34.78

11

Putail

71

76.72

29

23.28

Average :

70.72

72.29

29.28

27.71

From the above table it shows that overall intensity of Arsenic in tubewells decreases from 29.28% to 27.71%. One of the reasons of it may be that after last year survey a good number of RED marked tubewells were re-sunk. Pourashava level of Arsenic decreases from 28% to 17.96%. Arsenic level in Hatipara Union increases from 39% to 49.83%.

Table – 2: Meetings for Community Level Motivation
SL NO
Meetings
Type
No.
Type of Participants
Attendance
Total (No.)

Male(%)

Female(%)

01
Courtyard Meeting
21478
Caretakers, Village Matabbar, Women, Children, Imams and other Male members.
128868
36
46

02

Union Parishad level Meeting

55

Chairmen, Ward Members and staff

715

77

34

03

School level Meeting

349

Teachers and Students

52350

45

51

Total:

21882

.

181933

.

.

It is revealed that the prevalence of arsenic contamination is the highest in Vararia Union (53.43%) and the lowest in Jagir Union (10.91%). During survey supervisors and ISDCM officials cross-checked 1,097 TWs as shown in table below:

Activities :

Screening of TWs : Total number of TWs surveyed was 21,277 of which 20,768 TWs were STWs, 84 DTWs, 235 Tara , 47 Ring Well and the rest other sources of water. Out of total water sources surveyed 19,982 TWs were found running, 468 choked-up and 762 were out of order. Out of total running TWs 14,444 (72.29%) were green marked and remaining 5,493 (27.71%) TWs were marked red. A total of 4,062 (20.33%) TWs did not have any arsenic in the water. In 42 villages there was no arsenic contaminated TWs with arsenic within acceptable limit.

It was a total survey and the findings were confirmed by cross-checking.  

Installation of different water options:

  Constant follow-up needed to monitor DTWs to see the changes

During the project period 2001 twenty-five IARPs were installed. The raw water of those 25 TWs varies from .05 + to 0.4 mg/L and treated water of all 25 TWs varies from .02 to .025 mg/L.

Additional 10 IARPs is under construction. This has been observed that the system is cheap, acceptable, easy technology, easy maintenance involving no recurring cost, and its materials are also locally available popular to the community.

IARP is saleable to the community.

More effective motivation needed for wider acceptance of the plant by the community.

•  Bucket Filters: During the year 2000 50 Bucket Filters were supplied and their performance was monitored on regular basis. Out of 50 filters only 2 were running, 24 filters were abandoned by the beneficiaries and they are not in operation anymore due to crack in the bibcock side. There is no trace of 18 filters, 3 bucket filters were shifted to another Upazila and 5 filters have been abandoned due to various reasons. The community do not like this system due to operational problem, slow filtration and maintenance problem.

Bucket filters need to convince the community that it is a useful single family type option, little physical labour required and there is no maintenance problem. In fact technology itself need to be modified or simplified. This needs close monitoring before it is either accepted or discarded.  

This is effective for surface water treatment but it needs to be closely monitored to ensure that arsenic contaminated water is not put in this filter for mitigation.  

•  RWH: RWH units were installed during the year 2000 made of PVC tank. As rainfall in Manikganj district is not regular and it is insignificant throughout the year the RWH has not been accepted by the community. As such, it should be carefully monitored for sometime more to see community reaction.

This water option may work for 3 to 4 months in a year on the availability of rain water and rest of the period of the year some other option needs to be provided for arsenic-free water.

Social Mobilization: Social Mobilization was an important activity under this project. One public meeting to share the results of action research project with the participation of UNICEF, DPHE, UNO, Upazila Parishad officials, Union Parishad Chairmen, Ward Committee Members, Health department officials and NGOs was organized which was the official social mobilization take off. Subsequently organization of a grand Rally, miking, 1 VAMC meeting in each of the 200 villages, one WAMC meeting in each of the 102 Wards, 55 UAMC meetings in 11 Unions (Municipality inclusive), 508 Uthan Baithaks, 2,177 informal social mobilization meetings, 36 awareness building meetings and distribution of 5,000 posters, 50,000 leaflets and 500 technical information leaflets and display of 25 billboards, 12 information boards in important places considerably mobilized the community and made them aware of the arsenic related operational problems and different ways of addressing them. Those were the means and channels of social mobilization through which the community was brought closer to the mainstream of the Community Based Project.

Training: The training during the project period organized on skill development is shown below with number of trainees against each category:

  ISDCM Staff
:
11 Nos
  Tubewell Testers
:
61 Nos
  Upazila Committee Members
:
20 Nos
  Union Committee Members :
:
164
  Ward Committee Members
:
642 Nos
  VAMCs Member
:
1252 Nos
  Caretakers
:
50 Nos

The skill development training equipped the relevant personnel to do their job efficiently in the implementation of the Community Based Project. They should be given the opportunity to utilize their developed skill.

New Water Options:  

•  IARP: During the project period 35 IARPs were constructed and each IARP served 10/12 families. Arsenic contents in raw water of the plant varies from .05 to 0.4 and iron contents varies from 1 ppm to 10+ ppm. After treatment of water arsenic in the water varies from 0 to .05 mg/L and similarly Iron in the water varies from 0 ppm to 6 ppm. The cost of the plant compared to other arsenic mitigation plants is minimum. This has been highly accepted by the community because of easy maintenance and without any recurring cost involved.

  The community has accepted IARP as an affordable, operationally easy arsenic mitigation option. This can become a saleable option.  

•  Hydropur: This is a surface water treatment plant. Two Hydropur Plants have been constructed under this project. One plant is in operation and another one will be in operation shortly. This plant can serve 200 families and more. The apparatus of the plant is of simple design and equipped with an automatic self-cleaning system. The essential operation consists in adding regularly chlorination to the Hydropur has remarkable characteristics:

  • limited purchase price;
  • complete elimination of any mechanical component;
  • fully independent and automatic running by the force of gravity without any energy consumption;
  • long service life of the apparatus;
  • minimum maintenance cost; and
  • controlled water quality  

•  ARP (SIDKO) Plant: During project period 2000 four ARPs were constructed which are in perfect running condition. These are being used by the community. This system is acceptable to the community all right but the cost of chemicals is too high and also not easily available. It is expected that this plant which has brought forth a new water supply arsenic-free system to the rural area will gradually get popular to the community through proper motivation. 

This is a mini surface water treatment plant taken to the rural people. It provides potable drinking water but requires organization and management skill to sustain it by the beneficiaries themselves.  

Management and Operations of Water Options:

 

 

Introduction : ISDCM has already implemented the ‘Community Based Safe Water Supply and Arsenic Mitigation Project in Manikganj Sadar Upazila' with the assistance of UNICEF and ROTARY Bangladesh . The project activities have been completed by September 2000. Under this project all the existing tubewells of Manikganj Sadar Upazila have been surveyed and arsenic affected suspect patients have been identified. Arsenic suspect patients have also been identified and their lists submitted to Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH) and Health Department for follow up action. Various local community and other relevant organizations have been involved and the community have been motivated in the implementation process. Various appropriate water options like Deep Tubewells, Rain Water Harvesting, 2-Bucket Arsenic Treatment Unit , Bangladesh – Canada Household Arsenic Treatment Unit and Continuous Arsenic Removal Plant have been installed with community participation.
A good number of community workers have been trained and through this process community resource has been built up.
It was, therefore, necessary to continue monitoring of the project activities for at least a year during which the community will be fully aware of the roles and responsibilities, operation and maintenance of the water systems established. After this monitoring phase the local DPHE may take over the responsibilities of routine monitoring within its operational framework.

The Objectives:

Donor & Agreement:
UNICEF, UNICEF/NGO/2000/10
Area & Duration :

Manikganj Sadar Upazila, Dec. 2000 – Dec. 2001

Cost of Project :
BD, Tk. 8,069,070.00
 

 

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PROFILE
Copyright © 2006 Motion Technology, Bangladesh.
Title of Project:
Post Implementation Monitoring of Action Research Project(Further) of Community Based Safe Water Supply & Arsenic Mitigation in Manikganj Sadar to assess the acceptability of Mitigation options .