CONTENTS
 
   Foreword
   List of Tables
   List of Charts/Graphs
   List of Photograph
   Acronyms
Project Running
Project implemented

Important trade and business
Some of the trades are mentioned below as references through which members utilized the loan:


Latrine Rings for Marketing
(Income-generation activities)

Table- 3: Loan Disbursement & Recovery Status

The amount of loan disbursed and recovered in the 5 Branch offices are shown below:

Sl. #
Name of Branch
Number of Loanee Members
Amount of Loan disbursed (Tk.)
Up-to-date rate of realization (%)
1
Natore Sadar
579
3,299,350.00
99.7
2
Singra
1,766
13,444,650.00
97.8
3
Kaliganj
929
5,210,650.00
98.1
4
Tamaltala
689
3,617,900.00
97.3
5
Dhamrai
235
9,04,000
98.2


Chart-2

Insurance Policy

The Organization has its insurance policy for members of credit program. The insurance policy introduced by ISDCM to help the group members to meet their emergency need or any members dies or faces any fatal accident or unable to pay the loan. In that case loan money is realized from insurance policy. The insurance premium is Tk.5 per thousand and deducted only once during loan disbursement. Through insurance policy over the years ISDCM has accumulated Tk. 1,45,692. The individual branch wise status is given below:

Table-4: Status of Insurance Premium Collection

Sl
Branch Name
Closing balance
Premium collection
Premium paid up
Balance
Loanee
Amount
Loanee
Amount
Loanee
Amount
1 Natore (S)
0
579
14345
0
0
578
14345
2 Singra
40352
1766
58455
01
2400
1127
96407
3 Kaliganj
2580
929
22655
02
6025
713
19210
4 Tamaltala
0
689
15730
0
0
579
15730

Women members engaged in goat raising project


2.3. Community Based Safe Water Supply and Arsenic Mitigation Action Research Project

Under UNICEF-DPHE Action Research Community Based Arsenic Mitigation Project different arsenic free water options were constructed at Sadar Upazila of Manikganj. The Organic and Inorganic type of options were considered in the R & D project. The inorganic option SIDKO Plant and as organic option Deep Tube well, RWH, IARP, Canada- Bangladesh Filter etc. were installed and regularly monitored the quality of water. It revealed from time to time evaluation by UNICE - BUET that IARP is more active to minimize As, Fe, and Mn than the other option. In order to sustain the project activities emphases was given on the community efforts. The project was continued from the year 2001 with the financial assistance of UNICEF. The project Upazilas were Homna of Comilla, Bancharampur of Brahmanbaria and Damurhuda of Chuadanga, Bashail of Tangail and Sadar of Manikganj. The prime objective of the project was ensuring safe water supply in the villages having 80% to 100% drinking TWs contaminated by arsenic through awareness creation and mobilizing community to own the project for its sustainability. ISDCM ensure community participation by fixing 20% project implementation cost for construction of the options by the beneficiaries.


An assessment of Arsenic, Iron and Manganese Removal (IARP) R & D Project at Manikganj Sadar:

Wide spread of arsenic contamination in the ground water in Bangladesh has become a great threat to human life in general. It is seen that both manganese and iron are often present together in natural ground water. Removal of iron is less difficult than removal of manganese which is almost impossible without using an oxidizing agent or increasing the pH. ISDCM has installed 35 Arsenic cum Iron removal plants in Manikganj Sadar Upazila. It may be mentioned here that Sadar Upazila has high concentration of Iron and Arsenic in the ground water. With the financial support of UNICEF, ISDCM has implemented Community-level iron cum Arsenic removal plant(IARP). There were few iron removal unit installed in Manikganj sadar during early 1980, but at the community level these unit did not enjoy wide public acceptance for long and performed poorly. But ISDCM revived few of its old and abandoned IARPs during implementation of Arsenic Mitigation project. It was observed that through field test kits water of the plants able to remove a good quantity of arsenic. The unique performance of those AIRPs jointly reviewed by UNICEF / DPHE and ISDCM.

These plants removed the presence of high concentration of iron and arsenic from water. And accordingly a project was formulated and on the basis of agreement 35 number of such plants (e.g., treatment units based on coagulation-absorption - co-precipitation) were installed by ISDCM with the financial assistance of UNICEF.


The design of the IARP was prepared by ISDCM. The IARPs were shallow tube well based removal plants and consists of an aeration chamber, one up-flow filter unit consisting of brick chips and local sand, and one down-flow sand filter. From tube well, water is pumped into the aeration chamber. From the bottom of the aeration chamber, water enters into the up-filter bed consisting of brick chips and sand. From this filter water enters a down-flow sand filter. Treated water is collected from a tap located at the bottom of this sand filter unit. To familiarize the option ISDCM taken up the matter with UNICEF and propose to assess its performance through an independent study group ands accordingly BUET was given the task. It was revealed from the study report that the AIRP option may be implemented in the area where ground water is contaminated by iron and arsenic. It is of course does not mitigate the arsenic fully but scale of contamination level come down in a considerable limit.


Iron-cum- Arsenic Removal Plant in Manikganj


To assess the situation a study group from Bureau of research Testing and consultation and Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) were contacted and engaged by UNICEF. On September 2005 the study team visited two ISDCM plants in Sadar of Manikganj. ISDCM actively supported the BUET study team. During study a sanitary inspection was carried out at each AIRP location. The Plant ID # 17 serves about 40 to 50 families, with a total population approximately 250 to 300. The plant is cleaned once every 10 to 15 days. During cleaning all water is drained. Media in the two chambers are completely withdrawn and put on poly then sheets. The media is then washed, manually. The cleaning process is quite rigorous and takes 6 to 8 hours. The users expressed their happiness with the quality of water they are getting from the AIRP. It was seen during visit that water pumped from the tube well into the first aeration chamber looked soapy. This could be due to the presence of manganese, which often shown this characteristics soapy color. The media in the khoa sand in the chamber of the IARP looked brownish-black, while that in the sand filter chamber looked blackish brown. The plant # 2(ID # 18) serves about 15 to 20 families, with a total population of approximately 100 to 150. The plant is cleaned once every 15 to 20 days. Here also, the users were found to be quite happy with the quality of the treated water.


Table-5: Characteristics of raw and treated water

Sl.
No.
Parameter
Unit
Plant-01 ID # 17
Plant-02 ID# 18
Raw
Water
Treated water
Raw water
Treated water
1
Ph
-
6.87
7.21
6.75
7.02
2
Turbidity
NTU
2.81
0.43
9.71
0.63
3
Conductivity
Pai/cm
948
914
1069
1051
4
Alkalinity
Mg/l
407
402
491
482
5
Hardness
Mg/l
366
382
350
330
6
Iron
Mg/l
3.77
0.02
10.99
0.02
7
Manganese
Mg/l
1.960
0.001
0.642
0.056
8
Arsenic
pai/I
144
45
65
17
9
Fecal Coliform
#/100ml
Nil
80
Nil
66

The results of above table shows the analysis of raw and treated water samples collected from the two plants are very effective in removing iron from ground water. Iron concentration in the raw waters for these plants varied from 3.77 mg/l to 10.99 mg/l. and for all two plants iron concentration in the treated water was below 0.02 mg/l. However, arsenic removal efficiencies of these two plants was about 70%.Though raw water did not have any Fecal Coli form, relatively high fecal coli form were detected in the treated water. This appears to be due to bacterial contamination of water within the filter media. This is assumed that higher arsenic concentration in raw water, these AIRPs may not be very effective. But these community AIRPs with two sand filter beds in series appear to be very effective in removing manganese from ground water. The plants which have found to be effective e in removing manganese have develop0ed dark coatings on the sand grains. These coatings are probably very effective in improving manganese removal efficiency.


2.3.1. Rural Safe Water Supply Project

For safe water option ISDCM has installed Dug Well, Rain Water Harvester, Bucket Filter, Canada Bangladesh Filter, Deep TWs, SIDKO plants, Hydropur and renovated Old Dug Wells in Homna, Bancharampur, Damurhuda and Manikganj Sadar. Before implementing the project the sustainability issue was carefully monitored. To keep functioning of each option a Operation and Maintenance Committee was formed at the beneficiaries level headed by Chairmen, Secretary and Cashier. For O & M monthly contributory system were established but it was not functioning at the expected level. A huge amount of money has been spent for the project and as such UNICEF-CPHE felt that a sustainability strategy should be designed and implemented to ensure safe water for the community for which a follow-up project was taken and implemented.

Dug Well in Homna of Comilla district

ISDCM has established a strong net work and co-ordination linkage at administrative and with the line departments for its sustainability. The Arsenic Mitigation Committees were formed for safe water supply and arsenic mitigation at Upazila, Union Ward and village levels. The network of actors and stakeholders created. The table 5, 6 and 7 presented below shows the basic facts of the project Upazila, status of arsenic contamination level in drinking tube wells and in irrigation tube wells.

Table-6: Basic Facts of the Project Upazilas

Sl.
No.
Name of District
Upazila
No. of
Union
No. of
Village
Population
1
Comilla
Homna
14
207
233805
2
Brahmanbaria
Bancharampur
13
118
305739
3
Chuadanga
Damurhuda
8
126
333549
4
Manikganj
Sadar
11
371
332000
5
Tangail
Bashail
6
121
184671
Total:
-
52
943
1389764

Table-7: Status of Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Tube Wells


Upazila
Total TWs Screened
Total Mark TW
Red
% of
As affected
TW
Total TW Green
% of As free TW
Villages affected
Beyond acceptable
Limit
Villages without Green TW
Homna
15624
10675
69%
5183
31%
59
50

Bancharampur
18104
12921
71%
20328
29%
20
21
Damurhuda
27564
7236
27%
15062
73%
6
0
Manikganj Sadar
21300
6238
29%
5183
71%
29
0
Bashail
20123
2066
10%
18057
90%
1
0


Chart-03

Chart-04

It was found that in three projects Upazila 50% of the TWs were arsenic contaminated beyond acceptable level. The highest rate of contamination was found in Bancharampur Upazila (71%) and lowest rate shown in Bashail Upazila(10%). On the other hand it was found that 50 villages of Homna Upazila have no Green TW and in Bancharampur Upazila 21 villages have Green TWs. It also reveled that Bashail Upazila is less privileged of arsenic has been included in GOVT-UNICEF Community Based Arsenic Mitigation Project.


Table - 8: Status of Arsenic Contaminated Irrigation Tube Wells

Name of
Upazila
Tube Wells Surveyed
Status of Tube Wells
Shallow
Deep
Tara
Total
Red
%
Green
%
Homna
Bancharampur
Damurhuda
3234
1699
10104
0
3
0
67
14
0
3301
1716
10104
2333
1564
2168
71%
91%
21%
968
152
7936
29%
9%
79%

It revealed from the testing TWs that a good number of them have been contaminated with arsenic beyond acceptable level which have marked red. It may be noted that disordered TWs and irrigation TWs could not be tested.


Table-9: Arsenic Mitigation Committees formed in 4 Upazilas

Name of
Upazila
Upazila Arsenic Committee
Union Arsenic Committee
Ward Arsenic Committee
Village Arsenic Committee
Total Arsenic
Committees Formed
Homna
Bancharampur
Damurhuda
Manikganj Sadar
1
1
1
1
14
13
8
10
126
117
72
90
207
118
127
200
348
249
208
301


Chart -05

The above Table shows that ISDCM field workers facilitated DPHE for formation of 1106 Arsenic Mitigation Committees at Upazila, Union, Ward and Village levels in 4 project Upazilas. This may be regarded as significant contribution in institutional development at grass root level for implementation of any Arsenic Mitigation project.

The two types of alternative Safe Water Options installed so far are inorganic and organic types. The organic type options are Dug wells, RWH, Deep Tubewells, IARP and PWSS and inorganic type options are SIDKO Plant and Hydropurs.

Table- 10: Number of options upazila wise shown below implemented
under Community Based Arsenic Mitigation & Water Supply
Project Option Constructed Period: 2000-2005

Upazila: Damurhuda
Option
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total
Dugwell (new)
X
X
20
40
X
X
60
Dugwell (Ren)
X
X
11
5
X
X
16
RWHH
X
X
30
10
X
X
40
PWSS
X
X
X
X
01
X
01
Total:
nil
nil
61
55
01
nil
117

Upazila: Homna
Option
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total
Dugwell (new)
X
X
50
75
48
X
173
Dugwell (Ren)
X
X
24
7
X
X
31
RWHH
X
X
20
45
X
X
65
Deep Tubewell
X
X
X
X
X
10
10
Total:
nil
nil
94
127
48
10
279

Upazila: Bancha rampur
Option
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total
Dugwell (new)
X
X
50
75
X
X
12
Dugwell (Ren)
X
X
05
17
X
X
22
RWHH
X
X
50
05
X
X
55
Total:
nil
nil
105
97
nil
nil
202

Upazila: Manikganj
Option
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total
Deep Tube well
29
X
X
X
X
X
29
IARP
10
25
X
X
X
X
35
RWHH
04
X
X
X
X
X
4
SIDKO
04
16
X
X
X
X
20
Hydropur
01
01
X
X
X
X
02
Total:
48
42
nil
nil
nil
nil
90

Chart -06

Chart -07


Chart - 8

2.3.2. Post-flood Rehabilitation Project in Homna and Bancharampur Upazilas-2004

The flood occurred in the year 2004 at Homna and Bancharampur was a devastating one which sub-merged and washed away most of the water options like dug wells, shallow tube wells and rain water harvesting. This has created a long term affect on source of safe water supply. The most of the options were submerged under flood water, the wells were full of turbid water, wells were filled with deposition of alluvial soil, apron of surrounding of well damaged due to erosion of soil washed away, some of RCC rings of dug wells displaced and alienated. ISDCM submitted documentary evidence on the affect of the damage to UNICEF and DPHE and assess the extent of damage.

Post-flood (2004) field Visit revealed that in Homna 156 Dug Wells, in Bancharampur upazila 147 Dug Wells and 25 RWHH went under water during the flood June, 2004. All the above mentioned dug well and RWH were brought in to operational. The Caretakers took part in rehabilitating the SWOs through cost sharing. The caretakers were given training to meet such emergency situation.

Table – 11: Rehabilitation work of existing SWOs

Sl
Type of Activities
Target
Achievement
Homna
Bancha-rampur
Homna
Bancha-rampur
1
Earth filling around the dug well
55
73
55
73
2
Earth filling around platform
86
66
86
66
3
De-watering & Re-excavation/Desanding
59
35
59
35
4
Well lining joint repairing
50
34
50
34
5
Reconstruction of innovated filter
47
35
47
35
6
Repair of apron
35
38
35
38
7
Reconstruction of Apron
66
44
66
44
8
Repair of platform
38
31
38
31
9
Reconstruction of platform
48
35
48
35
10
Guard wall repairing
36
19
36
19
11
Hand pump repairing & switching pipe rejoining
85
51
85
51
12
Disinfection of dugwell
1
156
Nil
13
Earth filling around Rain Water Harvestor Tank
Nil
16
nil
16
14
Water Quality test in the laboratory
23
13
23
13
15
2” patent store casting inside base of Jar
nil
25
nil
25
16
Disinfection of RWH
nil
25
lnil
25

2.3.3. Follow-up Project on Arsenic Mitigation Options to ensure its regular
Functioning:

The project follow-up action was undertaken for ensuring proper functioning of the options installed in Homna of Comilla, Manikganj Sadar, and Damorhuda of Chuadanga district are in operation. The options considered which implemented during 2001 to 2004. The arsenic mitigation option were dug well, rain water harvesting, hydropur the water treatment plant, SIDKO water treatment plant and Canada Bangladesh Filter. The rural people are traditionally accustomed with using ground water. The options installed over the years for which the options needed repairing and reconstruction due to lack of poor maintenance. In this project UNICEF and DPHE spent a huge amount of money for ensuring arsenic free water in the communities.

Maintenance and reconstruction of the following existing SWOs have been done for smooth functioning of the options.


Table - 12

Sl.
#
Name of Upazilas
Type of Options
Number of
Options
01 Manikganj Sadar of
Manikganj district
DTW (Deep Tube Well)
29
IARP (Iron & Arsenic Removal Plant
35
RWH (Rain Water Harvester)
04
SIDKO Plant(Arsenic Removal Plant)
20
Hydropur
02
02 Homna of
Comilla district
Dug Well (New)
173
Dug Well (Old)
31
RWH (Rain Water Harvester)
65
DTW (Deep Tube Well)
10
03 Damurhuda of
Chuadanga district
Dug Well (New)
60
Dug Well (Old)
16
Pipe Water Supply System (PWSS)
40

During implementation of the project necessary measures were taken for sustainability of the project. Local management committee for operation and maintenance of the option was formed and training provided but like every other project sustainability could not be ensured fully. It seemed that sustainability may not be possible without institutional awareness within the community. After phase out of the project DPHE and UNICEF tried to know the field situation based on which the follow up project was undertaken with the objectives hereunder:

  1. Develop effective management system for Operational and Maintenance of the options;
  2. Keep options running;
  3. Piloting Water safety plan;
  4. Monitoring water quality through lab test; and
  5. Ownership creation among beneficiaries of their option

There were activities in the follow-up project accomplished which are as follows:

Table – 13: The software activities accomplished during Follow Up Project:

Sl
Activities
Target
Achievement
Homna
Damurhuda
Manikganj
Sadar
Homna
Damurhuda
Manikganj
Sadar
01
Organize briefing of local elites and volunteers on hygiene practices
270
210
300
270
210
300
02
Base line survey to assess present situation of arsenic mitigation project implement during 2000-04
269
116
85
269
116
85
03
Analysis of alternative water options
269
116
85
269
116
85
04
Organize group meeting of the committee members of each option at the site
269
116
85
269
116
85
05
Prepare a sustainable mechanism for generation of fund for O @ M
204
76
85
204
76
85
06
Organize meeting with Upazila Arsenic Mitigation Committee to ensure the sustainability of the project
-
03
-
-
01
-
07
Organize Debate competition of school students
-
08
-
-
08
-
08
Organize VDO show on Folk song/Popular theatre to create awareness on Arsenic mitigation
20
08
-
25
08
-
09
Survey on Sanitation and hygienic practices
09
07
10
09


07
10

10
Lab test of water of all types of existing alternative options
47
76
53
47
76
53
11
Lab test of DTW water quality

10
-
-
10
-
-

Rectification and repairing of different options:


Table – 14:

Name of Upazila
# of Dug- well Repaired
# of RWH Repaired
# of SIDKO plant repaired
# of Deep TW repaired
# of Hydropour repaired
# of IARP repaired
Homna


47
44
-
-
-

-

Manikganj sadar
-
-
20
20
02
35
Daqmurhuda
76
17
-
-
-
-

2.3.4. Environmental Sanitation, Hygiene and Water Supply to Rural Area (ESHWRA) Project:

EHWRA project was part of the Follow-up project which has completed under the reporting period. The objective of this part of the project was to know the extent of sanitary latrine use and awareness creation. The local youths were engaged as volunteers to educate the people about the importance of safe sanitation and health hygiene. The volunteers were taken one from each village and who visited door to door house. ISDCM organized union level briefing meeting which participated by local elites and mass people. A questionnaire was designed by DPHE and ISDCM for survey.

Under the planned activities environmental sanitation, Hygiene and safe water supply in the Rural Areas (ESHWRA) have given emphasis to create awareness through briefing UZ AMC meetings, Mass meetings, review meetings and meeting of stakeholders mobilizing community.

Table – 15: Awareness Creation Meeting with Sectoral Agencies

Sl. #
Name of Upazila
Briefing of ESHWRA volunteers
Review meeting of ESHWARA volunteers
UZ AMC meeting
Briefing meeting with local elites
Union Mass meeting
Briefing meeting of stakeholders
01
Mnikganj Sadar
99
99
7
11
02
6
02
Homna
108
-
7
240
12
6
03
Damurhuda
72
07
7
160
7
8

Survey findings of ESHWRA Project:

It is already stated that ESHWRA was one of the component of Follow-up project. The objective was enhanced and assessed the coverage of sanitary latrine use in the respective project Upazilas. There is % sanitary latrine use, latrine without WS and use of open or hanging latrines show below in the Chart-09.


Chart-09

Similarly during survey it was also seen that how people clean/washes their hands and feet after defecation and % shown below in graphic presentation.


Chart -10

Usually under age children defecates in the open spaces. During survey it was tried to assess % of people disposes the faces in safe disposal system which has shown below in graphic presentation.



Chart -11

The arsenic free safe water uses shown below in the Chart-12.


Chart – 12



Chart-13

2.3.5 Piloting Water Safety Plan:

The implementation of Water Safety plan under Follow-up Project ISDCM under took certain motivational measures in the community of 3 Upazila and targeted 20 Dug Wells of Homna, 8 Dug-Wells and 8 RWHHs of Damurhuda Upazila and 8 Deep TWs of Manikganj for regular monitoring. It was aimed to look into 10 risk factors which might cause water infection by bacteria. ISDCM Field workers periodically visited and motivated the community to maintain their Water Point functioning and keep it safe from bacteria contamination. The findings were reviewed by ISDCM and submitted to DPHE for action and follow-up. The following risk factors were monitored:

  1. Is latrine within 10 meters of dug wells?
  2. Is there any other source of pollution / contamination of water within 10 meters of water source?
  3. Is there a ditch on pond within 10 meters of the water sources?
  4. Is drainage faulty allowing ponding within 2 meters of water sources?
  5. Is drainage channel cracked, broken or in need of cleaning?
  6. Is platform less than 5’x5’?
  7. Is platform under cut by erosion?
  8. Is hand-pump loose at the point of attachment?
  9. Is trunk loose at the point of attachment?

3.1. Flood Emergency Response (FERP) Project:

Natural calamity especially flood in Bangladesh is regular phenomena. Re-visit of flood is so short and to surmount its occurrence by the affected people usually become out of their means. The objective of the project was involved the community to make them prepare in the pre-flood situation and post flood. None can escape irrespective of cast or creed either rich or poor men and women, young and children. To overcome the problem project was designed to orient community to face how to address water and sanitation situation during flood. Community mobilization to participate in the community based flood preparedness activities was undertaken by Department of Public Health Engineering. The govt. has taken flood emergency project to combat such situation with the financial help of UNICEF. NGOs were engaged in implementation of the project. ISDCM lead agency was selected as one of the potential NGO. The Project area was distributed by DPHE/UNICEF on the basis of geographical location where flood hit every year. One of the important part of the project was increase sanitation coverage by installing Community Latrines and implemented satisfactorily.

ISDCM awarded 30 Upazilas in 5 districts and implemented the project hiring 10 local based NGOs on partnership. The following NGOs were engaged:

OSP, SEED, Manikganj
 
MKSS, Gaibandha  
SBSKS, Netrokona  
DHARA, Jessore  
RDC, USA and Paradise,Jhenaidha  
YISEA, Saturia, Manikganj  

ISDCM organized one day briefing of NGO representatives and training for the coordinators and Motivators. Before launching the project as lead NGO ISDCM organized planning meeting with the participation of Executive Engineers, DPHE, Sub-Divisional Engineers and Sub-Assistant Engineers, DPHE. The major activities were briefing meeting of Primary school students, courtyard meeting and distribution of motivational leaflets. In each Upazila 100 school level meeting and 100 courtyard meetings were organized. The average attendance of school level meetings was 100 students and in the courtyard meeting of 27 villagers. Beside that 600,000 leaflets were distributed. This has helped people to be aware about their role during flood and after flood. ISDCM has constructed the following number of community latrines in the respective project areas. The site of community latrines were selected by ISDCM Field workers with the help of local DPHE authority. It is known that sanitation coverage in the rural areas are poor but under the flood emergency project community has been mobilized and motivated people to use community latrines. The following community latrines have been installed in Gaibandha, Jessore, Jhenaidha and Netrakona districts.

Table-16: Community Latrines Constructed under Flood Emergency Response Project (FERP)

District
Upazila Covered
Community Latrines Constructed by ISDCM
Temporary Water seal Latrines Constructed by ISDCM
Jessor
5
7
6
Jhenaidah
3
5
00
Manikganj
7
12
00
Natrokona
10
16
00
Gaibandah
5
8
00
Total
30
48
6


FERP Community Latrine at Gaibandha

Ujirpur Village Piped Water Supply System (PWSS) Damurhuda Upazila, Chuadanga

The Village Water supply through pipeline in the rural areas has been completed by ISDCM under technical support of DPHE and financial assistance of UNICEF. The project was initially designed by ISDCM and approved by DPHE. The supply of water through pipe line in the rural areas has been implemented in very few villages of Bangladesh through donor’s assistance. The project village Ujirpur was selected by ISDCM and approved by DPHE as an appropriate and ideal for piped water supply. This was an experimental DPHE pilot project. The expansion of this project depends on its merit and government policy and cost effective.
l
Ujirpur village is one of the Arsenic affected villages of Damurhuda. 89% population of the village is affected by high prevalence of Arsenic. Source of safe water in Bangladesh is mainly from ground water and it continues to be so even today until arsenic contamination in ground water has posed great concern for the nation country.



Piped Water Supply System (PWSS) including IRP in Village – Ujirpur,
Damurhuda of Chuadanga district

Village profile / statistics

Name of the Village
: Ujirpur
Union : Damurhuda
Upazila : Damurhuda
District : Chuadanga
Area : 2.50 sq. Kilometers
Population : 4,276 persons
House hold : 835 nos.
Para / Cluster : 9 Paras
Arsenic contamination level
of water sources
: 89%
Affected Families : 744
Affected Population : 3,810

A survey was conducted with a view to determine the socio-economic status of the population of Ujirpur village 110 Families were selected randomly from 930 families for the survey. The survey findings indicated that many families used to collect drinking water from long distance because all the shallow tube wells affected villages.

The 110 sample families divided in to 5 (five) groups based on the monthly income. The findings of the survey are as follows:

Group
Monthly Income
# of Families
%
A
<TK.1000/-

11

10
B
>Tk.1000 to 1200/-
24
22
C
>TK.1200/- to 2000/-
42
38
D
>TK. 2000/-to 2500/-
24
22
E
>TK. 3000/-
09
08

Based on the above findings monthly operation & maintenance charges were fixed by the
O & M committee

Group
Total Projected Family
Monthly Operation & Maintenance charges to be Collected
Total Operation & Maintenance charges to be Collected
A
83
Tk. 10/-
830
B
84
TK. 13/-
1,092
C
217
TK.18/-
3,906
D
251
TK.20/-
5,020
Total:
635
-
10,848

Implementation Strategy

The Ujirpur village Rural Pipe line Water Supply Operation and Maintenance Committee (VWSOMC) was involved in the implementation process of the project.

As a part of the involvement joint bank was account opened in the name of ‘Ujirpur Safe Water Supply Samity’. The account was operated by President and the Secretary of the Samity. All the bills and charges collected from the beneficiaries and deposited in the account. The bank operation is done to meet the O&M cost. The Ujirpur Safe Water Supply Samity has donated 3 decimal land costing Tk.300,000 for the construction of PWSS complex. This was an expensive project and the people of Ujirpur village agreed to pay @ Tk.100 by each family as contribution money. BADC irrigation deep tube well was used for supply of water for irrigation purposes and an agreement was made with the BADC irrigation TW consumer committee to use the tube well for drinking purposes.

Work Accomplished by ISDCM

ISDCM implemented the project having following components of the village piped water supply project:

Installed Pipe line Network;

Drilled Exploratory 3-Test Wells (with a depth f 400’, 500’ & 600’);
Constructed Iron Removal Plant (IRP);
Constructed Aeration Tower;
Constructed 2 underground tanks of 20,000 liter capacity each, one for aw and other for treated water;
Converted existing diesel pump to electrically operating pump;
Extended 440 Volt Electric line and upgrading of existing line;
Constructed pump house;
Constructed Community Tank of 500 liters capacity;
Formed VWSOMC and activated it;
Trained different committees;
Trained Operator, Caretakers and Plant Manager for operation & maintenance of the project;
Provided support in community development;
Established cost sharing and O&M Mechanism; and
Constructed boundary wall around the IRP
Formed Village Pipe Water Supply Operation & Maintenance Committee for maintenance and operation of water systems.
Trained the members of the Committee regarding roles and responsibilities.
Trained the Operator-cum-Mechanics and Plant manager on maintenance of water supply facilities and account keeping.
Developed monitoring systems.

1. ISDCM developed a Operation & Maintenance (O&M) Manual and completed the training of Community leaders, Manager, Operator, Caretaker and the members of O&M committee on 18-19 January 2005.


Operation Mechanism of PWSS

1. The BADC irrigation Deep TW was at a depth of 360’-0” with 6” diameter. The water pumped in to the underground water tank reservoir of 20,000 liters capacity. An electrical motor of 40 HP has been fixed with the Irrigation TW. The underground tank filled with water two times a day.


Irrigation DTW as a source of PWSS in the Village – Ujirpur
of Damurhuda Upazila

2. From the underground reservoir the water is pumped into the tower at a height of 20’-0” by 2 HP motor for free flow of water through perforated pipes. It takes 60 to 75 minutes to filled up with 20,000 liters capacity water tank from under ground reservoir.

3. For removal of iron raw water enter into filter bed. There are two filter beds. The surface area of each filter bed is 200 sq ft. It can filter 15 gallons of water per sq. ft. per hour. Two filter beds can be used at a time.

4. Water pumped by a 3 HP capacity motor for supply to 34 community water tanks of each 500 liters capacity. It takes approximately 30-40 minutes to fill 34 community tanks. Presently, the pump runs twice, once in morning and again in the evening. The beneficiaries collect water from these 34 points. Each tank provides water for 15-20 families.

Total area coverage of the project

a) Total pipeline network is 12,913 ft. about 4 kilometers;
b) Mollah Para, School Para, Khalifa Para, Digh Para, Mondal Para, Kash Para & Mall Para;
c) 7 Paras out of 9 of Ujirpur village; and
d) 590 affected families consisting of 2,812 members

Management of the PWSS

3 Committees have been formed as follows:
i. Advisory Committee
ii. Management Committee
iii. Community Leaders

Training

A training manual was developed by ISDCM for training of Management Committee, Community leaders, Operators and Caretakers. a 2-day training was organized for different committees. The training was facilitated by UNO Damurhuda, XEN DPHE Chuadanga, AE DPHE, SAE DPHE, Damurhuda. ISDCM organized the training and Sr. Program Coordinator facilitated the training program, UNICEF Project Coordinator, Kushtia acted as a Moderator.



Training of Ujirpur O&M Committee Members

Table-17: Estimated Monthly Operation and Maintenance costs

Sl
Item
Quantity
Unit
Unit cost
Total Cost
Remarks
1
Electric Bill
-
-
-
1000
-
2
Salary of operator cum Mechanics
1
Month
2000
2000
Full time
3
Salary of Plant Manager
1
Month
1000
1000
Part time
4
Maintenance of Pipeline
LS
-
-
500
-
5
Sundries
-
-
-
500
-
Total Taka:
5000
-

Table-18: Actual Cost Incurred During the Month of November 2005

Sl
Item
Quantity
Unit
Unit Cost
Total Cost Tk
Remarks


1
Electric Bill
-
-
-
764
-
2
Salary of operator cum Mechanics
1
Month
1000
1000
Full Time
3
Salary of Plant Manager
1
Month
1000
00
Part Time paid by ISDCM for this month
4
Maintenance of Pipeline
LS
-
-
100
-
5
Sundries
-
-
-
409
-
Total:

2273

-

a)
Monthly O & M cost collected from
590 families @ Tk. 10/- per family
(for this month only)
: Tk. 4,620
b)
  Monthly estimated operation and maintenance
expenditure as shown above
: Tk. 2,273
c)
Savings per month (a – b) : Tk. 2,347

The monthly estimated net savings TK. 2,347 which will be kept in the bank account for future expansion / improvement / Major repair etc. when necessary. Initially each beneficiary agreed to contribute Tk.100/- but at one stage they refuse to pay. Local level leadership is not grown because of political reason and lack of co-operation from village people.


Institutional Management in Arsenic Mitigation project

The arsenic mitigation project is a govt. project funded by UNICEF. The project is new of this kind because people have never experienced mineral like arsenic in the tube wells of the rural areas. Since arsenic is great threat to the human body the government attached high priority to mitigate this problem and formed committees up to lowest body of the peoples representative to address the issue. ISDCM with the help of line department an institutional net work was formed with different agencies. DPHE Sub-Assistant Engineer extended full support and constant monitoring and supervision i>n implementation of the project. UNICEF provided financial resources, technical support, organized monthly progress review meeting to strengthen link between DPHE, NGO and UNICEF. Upazila Arsenic Mitigation Committee organized monthly arsenic mitigation review meeting and reviewed the progress and provided necessary inputs. Union/ward arsenic mitigation committees were supported in site selection process of different options and social awareness. In post-implementation period of the Arsenic Mitigation Project the strength weakness and opportunities were identified. These issues were shared with DPHE for efficient implementation of the project in future.



Users of Ujirpur PWSS

Strength of the Arsenic Mitigation Project

1) Awareness on the problems of arsenic has been created at all levels;
2) Strong network of actors and stake holders established;
3) Strong coordination at administrative and line department level established;
4) Committees for safe water supply and arsenic Mitigation Committees at Upazila, Union, Ward and village level have been established;
5) Arsenic contamination in existing tube wells identified;
6) Needs for alternative options assessed with the community participation;
7) Construction of 34 Community tank with 500 liters capacity;
8) Committees for sharing of cost for alternative arsenic mitigation options;
9) New technologies for safe water options introduced;
10) Appropriate skills for safe water options have been developed;
11) Suspect-arsenocosis patients have been identified;
12) The PWSS project was highly accepted by the community.

Weakness of the Arsenic Mitigation Project

1) Lack of constant follow-up at Upazila, govt. level
2) Creation of awareness resulted into demand for appropriate water options which could be met;
3) Poor community cannot afford 20% contribution money as fixed in the project;
4) Lack of inter-sectoral priority on arsenic at the govt. level;
5) Lack of commitment of the public representatives and community leaders;
6) Lack of initiatives from the chairmen of different committees to make the committees functional;
7) Poor community participation on sharing contribution money in PWSS project.


Opportunities of the project

1) Skilled man power is now available to continue the next phases;
2) Local level employment generated;
3) Committees and groups already in place will be helpful
to sustain the project;
4) Govt. may put inter-sectoral priority in arsenic problem through
inter-sectoral committee already in place;
5) Appropriate options of different type can be tried;
6) Ground for local level planning on water supply and sanitation prepared;

7) Sanitation and hygienic education component should be added with the safe water supply
and arsenic mitigation project;
8) NGOs involvement particularly for community organization is important factor;
9) Inter-department / organization coordination be established;
10) There is a scope of expanding the project in other areas.

Non-Formal Education (Singra Upazila)

There are 4 on going non-formal Education Centers in Chowgram, Teligram, Dourmallick, Damdama and Pakuria villages of Singra Upazila and four NFE centers have been completed. The children are mostly belong to the members of the micro-credit project who send their children to the centers. The children are mostly 6+ age groups. The books are locally available from Non-Formal Education dept. The duration of courses is 3 years and enrolled 97 children. Timing of the schools 09 AM to 12 PM and attendance rate is 84%. The project cost is borne by ISDCM, the members of micro-finance activities also supported NFE implementation. On completion of three years courses willing student get their admission in the local primary schools, ISDCM supported them for admission. The members of micro-finance project provided ISDCM with accommodation for schooling and teachers are local and engaged by ISDCM.

Table-19: Showing no. of children completed non-formal education in 4 centres

Name of Villages

Number of Children
Male
Female
Total
Chowgram
16
15
31
Teligram
14
12
26
Dourmallick
13
16
29
Damdama
15
19
34
Pakuria
11
7
18
TOTAL:
69
69
138

Beside 165 members of micro-credit Project received literacy education under Adult Literacy programme during 2005. There is no course duration. The members of the literacy programmes are all members of income generation project. There is compulsory system of organizing weekly meeting of group members and ISDCM community Organizer attended in the meetings. The weekly meeting is used as a venue of literacy program. The reading books and slates are purchased by the members. The left out women who are the members of income generation project will gradually receive adult literacy education. The women completed the course successfully are capable to read and write. This NFE adult literacy education project helped ISDCM to run the credit program efficiently.

Table-20: Showing no. of adult women got literacy

Name of Villages
Adult Women
20+ age group
30+ age group
Total
Chowgram
31
12
43
Telegram
23
26
39
Dourmallick
18
9
27
Damdama
21
14
35
Pakuria
29
12
41
TOTAL:
122
73
185

The ISDCM carried out awareness creation activities in Homna, Bancharampur and Damurhuda to increase of attendance of children to schools and reduction of drop out rate.

2.6. Village Sanitation Programme

The people of Singra and Homna Upazilas grow up with water all around them in monsoon period and it plays major part in the social and economic life. During flood drinking and sanitation facilities go beyond control and drinking water become contaminated. Fecal pollution of water sources and the home environment is the source of diarrhea and worm infestation that aggravates endemic malnutrition.

The poor percentage of population uses hygienic latrine in Singra, Homna Upazilas and similarly in Bagatipara , The level of awareness on water sanitation and hygiene are connected with health is very low. ISDCM has its small scale Sanitation Program in 3 villages like Pakuria, Teligram and Chowgram of Singra Upazila. Primarily the project was taken in partnership with NGO Forum. The NGO Forum supported ISDCM with materials like tools and plants. The fund for cost of raw materials was born by the ISDCM. After phase out the support of NGO forum ISDCM continued the program with its own fund. The awareness building through motivational activities was done by the ISDCM community organizers. Under this programme all 3 villages have been covered and completed 21% population of the villages by WS latrine sanitary latrines. Along with motivation on sanitation motivational activities on health hygiene, cleanliness were carried out. The most widespread technology for sanitary latrines is the single pit water seal latrine and appropriate technology is the simple pit made entirely from local materials has become most popular.

Table 21: The statistical status and progress of the project

Name of village
Population
Families
Target
Achievement
Pakuria
5334
935
767
154
Chowgram
2754
483
396
52
Pakuria
2422
424
374
78
Total:
10510
1842
1510
284

Table 22: Targets and Achievements of Social mobilization activities Project, Singra

Activity
Target
Achievement
1. Staff orientation
01
01
2. VSC formation
03
03
3. VSC orientation
01
01
3 . Courtyard Meetings
37
37
4. Community level Meetings
06
06
6. Meetings at School level
12
12
7. VSC meeting
12
09

ISDCM has also mobilized communities for increasing the practice of sanitary latrines in Homna, Bancharampur and Damurhuda Upazilas. This has helped considerable increase of use of sanitary latrines. ISDCM organized courtyard meetings, village meetings and meetings at the primary school level in Homna, Bancharampur and Damurhuda Upazilas. The table presented below shows that the social mobilization meetings organized in 3 project Upazilas. With the financial assistance of UNICEF survey on the use of sanitary latrines has been completed. Motivational groups have been formed in each village with the participation of young local boys. These boys carried out the mobilization activities. These boys were given training and allowances.

Table 23: Information on Dissemination on Sanitation

Sl.
No.
Name of
Upazila
Type of Meeting
No. of
Meeting
No. of
Participants
Issues Discussed
01.
Bancharampur 1) Uthan Baithak
21
243
Use of water sealed latrines or home made pit latrine using earthen rings
2) Village Committee
Meeting
12
121
02
Homna 1) Uthan Baithak

23

232

Use of water sealed latrines or home made pit latrine using earthen rings
2) Village committee
Meeting
-
-
3) Primary School
Visit
14
345
03
Damurhuda 1) Uthan Baithak

27

214

Use of water sealed latrines or home made pit latrine using earthen rings
2) Village committee
Meeting
09
74

2.7. Creation of awareness on Health & Nutrition

ISDCM with its efficient Field Workers carried out various social mobilization activities on Health, Nutrition, Education and Sanitation etc. They were given orientation on the above subjects for creation of awareness at community level. The Field Workers organizes courtyard meetings, village committee meetings etc. in the project area.

Health and Nutrition

Singra Upazila is a covered with great Chalan Beel and most of the area remains under water 6-7 months of the year and affected by flood. The people mostly illiterate and has little knowledge about health care. ISDCM Field workers do the propaganda activities on health related information’s like diarrhea, nutritional blindness, EPI, Iodine deficiency, sanitation and water issues. ISDCM Field Workers assist EPI vaccination programme to Health Assistant. Organizes awareness creation meeting in the project Upazilas and motivate people take the health services provided by the govt. Health Institution. The committees established at different level under the directives of the govt. for arsenic mitigation project has been utilized to create awareness for Health, Education, Water and Sanitation etc.

The rural people are not much aware about food value. Protein intake levels by the rural people are very much low. Most of the protein derived from cereals and was not complemented with adequate quantities of higher quality protein from legumes and animals sources. The ISDCM trying to popularized certain readily available vegetables and fruits. The community ignored about cheap, easy and locally available food items. But ISDCM has helped them to aware about certain key nutrients of the people of project area. This activity was included with project components viz. water options, Sanitation, Education and income generation meeting of the group members. The table presented below shows the dissemination of health and nutrition information by field workers.


Table 23: Dissemination of information on Health & Nutrition

Sl.No.
Name of Upazila
Type of
Meeting
No. of
Meeting
No. of
Participants
Issues
Discussed
01 Bancharampur
3) Uthan Baithak
4) Village Committee
Meeting
21

12

243

121

EPI, Nutritional blindness Prevention, Diarrhea diseases, Water & sanitation, Iodine deficiencies, different vegetables nutrients etc.
02 Homna 4) Uthan Baithak
5) Village Committee
Meeting
6) Primary School Visit
23


14

232


345

EPI, Nutritional blindness prevention, Diarrheas, Water and sanitation, Iodine deficiencies and different vegetables nutrients etc.
03 Damurhuda 3) Uthan Baithak
4) Village Committee
Meeting
27

09

214


74

EPI, Nutritional blindness prevention, Diarrheas, Water and sanitation, Iodine deficiencies and different vegetables nutrients etc.

2.8. Advocacy on Child Rights

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) covers all individuals below the age of 18 years, “unless under the law a applicable to the child, maturity is attained earlier”. NGOs have been working actively to raise awareness regarding children’s rights and related issues. The impact in the global trends such as violence, poverty, debt, environmental degradation and crime have important implications for children growing up in developing nations.

ISDCM’s all activities are primarily aimed and actively focused on the Rights of the Child. It has institutionalized advocacy on Child Rights and related issues as regular agenda in all existing programmes and forum. In its Community Development Project in Singra Upazila of Natore district Child Rights issues are being discussed in the regular group meetings and in the Upapilla Development Coordination meetings where ISDCM local Manager represents. In the same way in Arsenic Mitigation Project in Damurhuda (Chuadanga),Bancharampur (Brahmanbaria) and Homna (Comilla) Upazilas the Child Rights issues were discussed at village, ward, union, and upazilla and district level Arsenic Mitigation Committee meetings on regular basis. The ISDCM field staffs were intensively oriented on Child Rights to do the job effectively. Child Rights week was observed with the participation of government officials, public representatives, group members, community leaders, teachers and children. A week long programme was drawn up to observe the Child Rights week including children’s games, seminar and publicity on prevention of child marriage with the financial assistance of Bangladesh Shishu Adhikar Forum (BSAF), ISDCM organized the regional and local level seminars.

Besides, a number of regional and community level seminars were organized by ISDCM on Child Rights and more particularly child Labor, child marriage, child trafficking etc.

The table presented below shows the number and participants of such seminars in 2004.



Children’s Rally on the occasion of Child Rights Week

Table 23: Showing Regional/Local level Seminars and number of participants
attended in ISDCM Project areas (2003-2004)

Name of
Project Area
No. of Regional/
Local level Seminars
Organized
Total number
Attended
Category of
Participants
Singra
01
56
UP Chairmen, Members, Municipality Chairmen, Commissioners, Imams, Teachers, Marriage Registrars, Social Workers, Women Activists, NGO Representatives students, Extension Workers and Upazila level officials & Local MP (in Singra Upazila).
Damurhuda
01
49
Bancharampur
01
58
Homna
01
61
Total:
04
224

It is found that different categories of participants took interests in Child Rights issues at local level. The participants laid emphasis on organizing such seminars more in number at local level to create awareness among the people.

The printed Booklets on Child Rights were also distributed to the participants and other key persons at Upazila level/union level.

2.9. HIV/AIDS

As an active member/partner of STI/AIDS Network of Bangladesh ISDCM maintained constant liaison and extended necessary support and assistance to the network regarding collaborative effort between NGOs to create a visible impact of the programs, to make the partnership wider and share experiences between partners.
With the limited resources ISDCM has expanded its activities particularly in the field of awareness creation on AIDS-a major life killer disease in the world at present. As per WHO estimate the total infections with the AIDS virus HIV at 5 to 10 million world wide.

ISDCM has organized seminars / workshops in the project Upazilas like Homna, Bancharampur, Damurhuda and Singra for creation awareness and dissemination of knowledge. The participants were School teachers, elites of the society, religious leaders and development workers. The topic AIDS was discussed in the following format

• What is AIDS and HIV;
• Type of infection;
• The origins of AIDS;
• AIDS as a global health concern;
• Treatment of AIDS;
• Transmission of AIDS;
• Preventing AIDS and
• Infection with HIV etc.

HIV infection can be prevented by a person’s own actions and decisions. In most instances, the active participation of two people is required for HIV transmission, such as in sexual intercourse and in sharing contaminated needles or syringes. However HIV can also be prevented through the health system (e.g. by ensuring the safety of blood, blood products, artificial insemination and organ transplantation and preventing reuse of needles, syringes). HIV infection can be prevented because the virus is not easy to spread. Also, because it spreads in ways we can control, knowledge about preventing HIV infection via sexual activities, exposure to infected blood and an awareness of the risk of transmitting HIV infection to children of infected mothers can greatly reduce the risk of infection.

In general, it was stressed that:

1) Un protected sexual intercourse is the main route of AIDS virus infection. Thus, people must know how to protect themselves from sexual exposure to the virus
2) Since HIV can be transmitted through blood, blood and blood products must be tested and treated to eliminate infectious virus;
3) AIDS virus infected women need to consider avoiding pregnancy.


The number of seminars and workshops organized on HIV/AIDS during reporting period are as follows:

ISDCM therefore, took special initiatives to create awareness among the people through organizing seminars and workshops.


Table 24: Seminars/Workshops organized during 2003-2004 on HIV/AIDS

Name of
Project Areas
No. of Seminars/
Workshops organized
Total number of
Participants
Category of
Participants

Singra

1
48
Up Chairmen, Members UP, Imams, Women Groups leaders, Teachers, Youths, Labor leaders, Upazila level govt. officials, Representatives of voluntary agencies, village doctors .
Bancharampur
1
73
Homna
1
62
Total:
-
183

ISDCM also carried out motivational campaign in the important places like Bus stand and Hat Bazar and uses posters about HIV/AIDS in the project Upazilas viz. Singra, Bancharampur and Homna.


2.10. Human Resource Development

As a small organization ISDCM with its limited resources and experienced manpower put top priority in development of human resources through a process of training and field placement to gain experience on the ground.

During 2005 good number of training programmes were organized on leadership development, social mobilization, water and sanitation promotion etc. In the tables presented below will show the number of participants in different trades:

Table 25: Leadership training organized 2005 under micro-credit project

Year
Category of participants
Community
Organizers/
Volunteers
Total No. of
Participants
Group Chairperson
Group Secretary
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
20
22
16
11
04
20
22
16
11
04
12
16
18
21
08
52
60
50
43
12
Total
73
73
75
217

All the group chairperson and secretaries of the functional groups under community development project at Singra and all the community organizers and some selected volunteers were trained during the year 2005 The number of such trained persons has increased during the reporting period over the last year.

Under the community Development Project at Singra the Community Organizers, Branch Manager were trained for 09 days duration in 2005. The table presented below shows the category and number of people trained on group organization, Micro-credit operation and income-generation activities:

Table 26: Training on Group organization, Micro-credit operation in 2005

Category of Persons
No. of Persons
Trained
Male
(No.)
Female
(No.)
Total
(No.)
Community Organizers
11
09
02
11
Branch Manager
04
03
01
04
Total:
15
12
03
15

All the staff working for Community Development Project trained on group organization, Micro-credit operation and income-generation activities.

It may be mentioned that all the staff, group leaders and volunteers trained as shown in the above tables were recruited from the local community and the skills and experiences gained through all training programmes will remain in the areas even the project is phased out by ISDCM.

 

 

                                                                 

 

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